Respiratory System Multiple Choice Question

Respiratory System Multiple Choice Question

Here are 50 multiple-choice questions (MCQs) about the human respiratory system, each followed by the correct answer:

What is the primary function of the respiratory system?

a) Digestion

b) Circulation

c) Gas exchange

d) Excretion

Answer: c) Gas exchange

Which structure in the respiratory system is the main site of gas exchange?

a) Trachea

b) Bronchi

c) Alveoli

d) Bronchioles

Answer: c) Alveoli

What muscle contracts to initiate inhalation?

a) Intercostal muscles

b) Abdominal muscles

c) Diaphragm

d) Pectoral muscles

Answer: c) Diaphragm

What is the windpipe that conducts air from the larynx to the bronchi called?

a) Esophagus

b) Trachea

c) Pharynx

d) Bronchiole

Answer: b) Trachea

Which part of the respiratory system contains the vocal cords?

a) Pharynx

b) Larynx

c) Trachea

d) Bronchi

Answer: b) Larynx

What is the flap of cartilage that covers the trachea during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway?

a) Uvula

b) Epiglottis

c) Glottis

d) Soft palate

Answer: b) Epiglottis

How many lobes does the right lung have?

a) One

b) Two

c) Three

d) Four

Answer: c) Three

What is the term for the tiny hair-like structures that line the respiratory tract and help move mucus out of the lungs?

a) Microvilli

b) Cilia

c) Flagella

d) Villi

Answer: b) Cilia

Which gas is transported by red blood cells from the lungs to the body’s tissues?

a) Carbon dioxide

b) Oxygen

c) Nitrogen

d) Helium

Answer: b) Oxygen

What is the main structure of the respiratory system where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged?

a) Bronchi

b) Trachea

c) Alveoli

d) Larynx

Answer: c) Alveoli

What is the primary muscle involved in the process of inhalation?

a) Intercostal muscles

b) Diaphragm

c) Abdominal muscles

d) Pectoral muscles

Answer: b) Diaphragm

Which of the following is the correct order of air passage during inhalation?

a) Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

b) Nose, larynx, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

c) Nose, trachea, pharynx, larynx, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

d) Nose, bronchi, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchioles, alveoli

Answer: a) Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

What structure separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity?

a) Epiglottis

b) Palate

c) Septum

d) Uvula

Answer: b) Palate

Which part of the brain regulates the rate and depth of breathing?

a) Cerebrum

b) Cerebellum

c) Medulla oblongata

d) Hypothalamus

Answer: c) Medulla oblongata

What is the condition characterized by inflamed airways and difficulty breathing, often triggered by allergens or exercise?

a) Bronchitis

b) Emphysema

c) Pneumonia

d) Asthma

Answer: d) Asthma

Which disease is characterized by the destruction of the alveoli, leading to reduced surface area for gas exchange?

a) Asthma

b) Bronchitis

c) Emphysema

d) Tuberculosis

Answer: c) Emphysema

What is the term for the amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions?

a) Vital capacity

b) Tidal volume

c) Residual volume

d) Total lung capacity

Answer: b) Tidal volume

Which structure in the respiratory system serves as a common pathway for both air and food?

a) Larynx

b) Trachea

c) Pharynx

d) Esophagus

Answer: c) Pharynx

What is the role of the surfactant in the lungs?

a) Increase the volume of the lungs

b) Reduce surface tension in the alveoli

c) Transport oxygen in the blood

d) Prevent the trachea from collapsing

Answer: b) Reduce surface tension in the alveoli

What is the term for the maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a maximum inhalation?

a) Tidal volume

b) Inspiratory reserve volume

c) Vital capacity

d) Residual volume

Answer: c) Vital capacity

Which condition is characterized by inflammation of the bronchi, leading to coughing and mucus production?

a) Emphysema

b) Asthma

c) Bronchitis

d) Pneumonia

Answer: c) Bronchitis

What is the main function of the nasal cavity in the respiratory system?

a) Filter, warm, and moisten air

b) Exchange gases

c) Produce vocal sounds

d) Store oxygen

Answer: a) Filter, warm, and moisten air

What is the correct term for the tiny air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange occurs?

a) Bronchioles

b) Alveoli

c) Capillaries

d) Tracheae

Answer: b) Alveoli

Which type of blood vessel surrounds the alveoli for gas exchange?

a) Arteries

b) Veins

c) Capillaries

d) Lymphatic vessels

Answer: c) Capillaries

What is the term for the process of air moving in and out of the lungs?

a) Respiration

b) Diffusion

c) Ventilation

d) Perfusion

Answer: c) Ventilation

Which part of the respiratory system is responsible for voice production?

a) Pharynx

b) Larynx

c) Trachea

d) Bronchi

Answer: b) Larynx

What is the medical term for a collapsed lung?

a) Pneumothorax

b) Bronchitis

c) Emphysema

d) Pleural effusion

Answer: a) Pneumothorax

Which structure prevents food from entering the trachea during swallowing?

a) Uvula

b) Epiglottis

c) Vocal cords

d) Soft palate

Answer: b) Epiglottis

What is the function of the pleura surrounding the lungs?

a) Facilitate gas exchange

b) Produce surfactant

c) Reduce friction between lung and chest wall

d) Warm and humidify inhaled air

Answer: c) Reduce friction between lung and chest wall

Which respiratory structure is also known as the voice box?

a) Trachea

b) Larynx

c) Pharynx

d) Bronchus

Answer: b) Larynx

What is the main component of the mucus that traps particles and pathogens in the respiratory tract?

a) Collagen

b) Elastin

c) Mucin

d) Keratin

Answer: c) Mucin

Which respiratory structure divides into the left and right bronchi?

a) Larynx

b) Trachea

c) Bronchiole

d) Pharynx

Answer: b) Trachea

What is the name of the small flap that covers the trachea during swallowing?

a) Larynx

b) Epiglottis

c) Pharynx

d) Uvula

Answer: b) Epiglottis

What is the primary site of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange in the lungs?

a) Bronchi

b) Alveoli

c) Trachea

d) Larynx

Answer: b) Alveoli

What condition is characterized by chronic bronchial inflammation, increased mucus production, and narrowing of the airways?

a) Pneumonia

b) Asthma

c) Tuberculosis

d) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Answer: d) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Which part of the brain contains the respiratory centers that control the rate and depth of breathing?

a) Cerebellum

b) Medulla oblongata

c) Hypothalamus

d) Thalamus

Answer: b) Medulla oblongata

What is the term for the volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal exhalation?

a) Tidal volume

b) Vital capacity

c) Residual volume

d) Functional residual capacity

Answer: d) Functional residual capacity

Which structure in the respiratory system acts as a passageway for both air and food?

a) Trachea

b) Esophagus

c) Pharynx

d) Bronchi

Answer: c) Pharynx

What is the primary gas transported by the blood from the lungs to the tissues?

a) Nitrogen

b) Oxygen

c) Carbon dioxide

d) Helium

Answer: b) Oxygen

What is the name of the disease characterized by inflammation and infection of the alveoli?

a) Emphysema

b) Pneumonia

c) Asthma

d) Bronchitis

Answer: b) Pneumonia

Which structure prevents the collapse of the trachea and keeps the airway open?

a) Smooth muscle

b) Cartilage rings

c) Elastic fibers

d) Alveolar sacs

Answer: b) Cartilage rings

What is the function of the nasal conchae in the respiratory system?

a) Support the trachea

b) Produce mucus

c) Increase surface area for warming and humidifying air

d) Exchange gases with the blood

Answer: c) Increase surface area for warming and humidifying air

What is the term for the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles to move air in and out of the lungs?

a) Respiration

b) Ventilation

c) Diffusion

d) Osmosis

Answer: b) Ventilation

Which of the following is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes obstructed airflow from the lungs?

a) Bronchitis

b) Tuberculosis

c) COPD

d) Pneumonia

Answer: c) COPD

What is the primary chemical stimulus for breathing?

a) Low oxygen levels

b) High carbon dioxide levels

c) High oxygen levels

d) Low carbon dioxide levels

Answer: b) High carbon dioxide levels

Which of the following structures is part of the lower respiratory tract?

a) Nasal cavity

b) Pharynx

c) Larynx

d) Bronchioles

Answer: d) Bronchioles

What is the name of the respiratory condition characterized by episodes of narrowed airways and difficulty breathing?

a) Tuberculosis

b) Emphysema

c) Bronchitis

d) Asthma

Answer: d) Asthma

What is the function of alveolar macrophages in the lungs?

a) Produce surfactant

b) Facilitate gas exchange

c) Remove debris and pathogens

d) Secrete mucus

Answer: c) Remove debris and pathogens

Which of the following is NOT a function of the respiratory system?

a) Oxygenation of blood

b) Removal of carbon dioxide

c) Regulation of blood pH

d) Production of red blood cells

Answer: d) Production of red blood cells

What is the name of the membrane that encloses and protects the lungs?

a) Pericardium

b) Peritoneum

c) Pleura

d) Meninges

Answer: c) Pleura

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